Zootechnics is the science in charge of studying the various factors for the best use of animals, both domestic and wild, taking into account the welfare of the animal and with the aim of obtaining maximum performance, managing resources in the order of sustainability.
In the word, zootechnics constitutes a technical neologism little used, and the animal breeding voice is more widespread to designate both science and art applied to animal husbandry.
The term Zootechnics derives from the Greek words. “Zoom” (animal) and ‘techne’ ( Veterinarian Little Elm Tx ), which etymologically means “the technique or art of animal husbandry”.
This term appears for the first time around 1844 in the work “Cours agriculture ‘by De Gasparin, but it was in 1858 when Emilio Baudement described the animal from an economic point of view, as a transformer of agricultural products in others of superior quality, and defined Zootechnics as “the science that aims to study the procedures that allow animals to obtain the best utility and the highest yield. From this moment, multiple definitions have been proposed by different authors.
It is not an easy task to try to set the conceptual limits of science, and much less find a suitable definition that in a few words its content is correctly synthesized.
In the opinion of Sotillo and Vigil (1978), all definitions of Zootechnics are based on a series of points:
Consider it as Applied Science
Consider animals as productive subjects and, therefore, useful to man.
Address the exploitation of animals under an economic approach.
Keep in mind the health and hygiene of exploited animals.
Objectives of Zootechnics
The basic objective of Zootechnics or Animal Production is to obtain the food of high nutritional value for a man (meat, eggs, and milk mainly, as well as aquaculture products and honey), in addition to obtaining other products such as wool or hair, skins and manure, and even animal traction.
As in any other human productive activity, the objective of the livestock entrepreneur, in addition to the one previously mentioned, is to obtain the maximum return on his investment and his work.
This does not preclude the existence of other less mercantilist objectives such as the proper use of the territory, the conservation of animal species and races, the population’s fixation to the rural environment or the creation of employment.